It has long been argued that the Greek polis and its central political and cultural institutions, among them the Prytaneion/Prytanis, saw a gradual, but continuous decline from the Hellenistic period onwards. This paper is based on a dissertation project that investigates the continuity and development of Greek polis institutions under Roman rule. First results show that the notion of a general decline needs revision and that, at least in some regions of the Mediterranean, the Prytaneion/Prytanis continuously thrived well into the Roman Imperial period. Focusing on Sicily and analyzing archaeological and textual sources, the following questions will be explored: 1. Where can Prytaneia/Prytanis be safely identified in Sicilian cities of the Hellenistic period and how? 2. How long were they of importance? 3. Did the function of buildings visibly change during their period of use? 4. What significance did this institution have in the cities of Hellenistic Sicily, also in comparison to other Greek polis institutions?