Writing the history of Sicily in the period of the last two centuries BC presents significant challenges, both because of the traditional historiographical narrative of subjection and decline under Roman rule, and because of the absence of strong historical narrative after the Roman conquest. The first part of this paper assesses the current state and direction of study of Sicily in the ‘late Hellenistic’, particularly in light of the increasing evidence of archaeology. The second part of this paper focuses upon the epigraphic evidence from the island of Sicily, in particular for the same period of Sicilian history, but also more broadly, presenting a new project – I.Sicily – which aims to publish online all the stone inscriptions from ancient Sicily.